Crossing daylilies - we grow our unique hybrid
Daylily is a remarkable plant. Absolutely unpretentious. Blooms 1.5 months continuously, and some - almost the entire season. A fantastic variety of colors, shapes and sizes of flowers. Some varieties also smell very nice. And if flowering is boring, buds can be cut off, fried and eaten! For me, daylily is also valuable for the ease of crossbreeding, that is, the ability to create your own varieties. “Sorta,” of course, said a lot, it didn’t reach the registration, because I tried for myself. And she didn’t set such a goal. I will tell you about how to grow an exclusive daylily in this article.
Which daylily to choose?
Selective inspiration visited me at the sight of the first seed box, and the very first experiments required the expansion of the assortment.
Daylilies are also not without flaws, but who without them! One flower blooms no more than one day (but there are so many that it is easily enough for a month and a half). Some species and varieties are quite aggressive and easily conquer the surroundings, crowding out smaller and weaker ones. But this problem is typical, rather, for the southern regions - the remaining five months of vegetation are only enough for the most necessary.
Having looked at the photos of daylilies in the catalog of the online store, I want to buy everything at once: huge spiders, touching small flowers, lace and double, star-shaped and with round flowers, polymers and multiforms ...
If finances and open spaces allow, you can, of course, buy the maximum you like, and then give out to neighbors and acquaintances what did not fit. But it is better to immediately deliberate (how much exposure is enough) to approach the choice.
- Decide when you need flowers? There is a day type of flowering - it opened in the morning, in the evening it bloomed; at night - after dinner it opened, it bloomed the next morning. Larks and owls, each his own.
- When is decorative needed? In terms of flowering, there are from very early (mid-June) to very late, which can be grown only in the extreme south. There are few repairing ones yet, but they are, for example, the unkillable Stella d’Oro and many modern tetraploids that bloom after a 2-to-3-week break.
- Check the climate of the region. There are varieties, by our standards, normal - the foliage dies in the fall, grows back in the spring. There are late falling asleep and early waking up (leave in the winter with green foliage). But there are evergreens that are not suitable anywhere except in the extreme south of the Russian Federation.
- Daylily is a plant of regions with sunny summers, where it appears in all its glory. In cloudy weather, the flowers may not open at all, in the rain flowers with thin petals turn into sloppy wet rags, and thin long peduncles with large inflorescences from the rain break.
- Growth in daylilies (peduncle height) from 30 cm to 188.
The most difficult thing is to choose a plant with flowers to your liking and not plant half of the plot with daylilies.
Daylily - care features
Daylilies are very unpretentious - on dense loam they grow and bloom remarkably, easily surviving two or three weeks without rain. Save the thick roots with tuberous thickenings. But because of the same tuberoid thickenings on the zakamychayushchy sites of the plant will be sick with rot and die.
Winter freezing ground for daylilies is better than winter damp.
Most daylilies grow in a dense bush and look very decorative in early summer: such bright green cheerful bumps. At a young age, all the leaves stick up, in the adult - in many varieties arcuate drooping. The width and stiffness of the sheet are different for different varieties.
In July, the tips of the leaves dry out for some, some completely dry the leaves, so in parallel with the removal of faded flowers and peduncles, it is necessary to clean the hummock from dried leaves. But closer to winter, it is better to leave the drying leaves - they will contribute to snow retention, the plant will "self-heat up". In spring, when young leaves begin to grow, old ones can be removed.
For 15 years of growing a variety of daylilies in the Khabarovsk Territory, I have never covered them for the winter, I haven’t processed them and haven’t fed them with mineral water or organics. Not one of the 33 varieties disappeared, and their own hybrids got a ticket to life.
How to grow an exclusive daylily?
Yes, it’s very simple - to pollinate a flower of one variety with pollen taken from another, leave a seed box, let it ripen, collect seeds and sow before winter. The result can be very interesting!
The pollination procedure is as follows: at about 10 a.m. in sunny weather, when the flowers have already opened, and the insects still pulled unknown pollen there, you need to gently use tweezers or fingers (with whom they are thin and long) to tear the stamen from the flower, which will be considered "Dad" and rub the stigma of the pistil of the flower, which will become "mom."
Pollen should be loose, this is a sign of its maturity. The stigma of the pestle should be slightly moist - this is the stigmatic fluid on which the pollen sticks. On the "mother" you need to hang a tag with the name of the parental varieties. It is necessary to pollinate several flowers at once, since the seeds may not be tied up - it is still difficult to determine the maturity and vitality of pollen by eye.
Thus, it is possible to cross-pollinate all daylilies that bloom at the same time, and hang them all with tags. But more than three flowers on one adult plant is not necessary, because daylily will spend a lot of energy on ripening seeds and plant less buds next year.
All that remains is to wait. From the moment of pollination to maturation of the box, 50-60 days pass. Seed boxes will darken and begin to crack - this moment must not be missed! However, darkening boxes can be tied with gauze and then the seeds will not go anywhere.
It may happen that the seeds are not ripe, but it is already cold - then it is better to cut the peduncles with boxes and put them in water, they will ripen at home.
By the onset of cold weather, prepare a plot for sowing, sow seeds in rows and stick tags. Shoots will appear in the spring, and by the end of summer the plants will need to be planted. The next year or a year later, the first flowers will appear. Even from seeds ripened in one box, the flowers will be different.
The most beautiful can be chosen and dedicated to anyone, and even to yourself! The first flowers are not an indicator, it is necessary to observe about 3 years. If the characteristics are preserved, it is wonderful, if not, to evict the plant in the "green zone".
Hybridization of daylilies with their own hands is a fascinating activity that contributes to the emergence of a huge number of daylilies - “mongrels”. By the way, children, especially girls, are happy to participate in this process with the prospect of a flower with their own name.
Rules for successful crossing daylilies
Hybrid daylilies have their own rules, they must be taken into account:
- Plant health, branching, the number of buds, flowering remontance depend on the “mother”, the beauty and design of the flower on the “father”.
- Diploid plants (for example, old varieties and botanical species) will not interbreed with tetraploid (having double the number of chromosomes - most modern varieties).
- When crossing tetraploids among themselves, due to the doubled number of chromosomes, there are more variations and possibilities than when crossing diploids.
- Dominant colors are red, lavender, yellow. When crossing, dominant colors can be mixed in various proportions, and recessive (for example, white) are suppressed. So if you need white, both parents must be white.
- The corrugated edge is a dominant feature, the corrugation can be enhanced by crossing two corrugated varieties.
And the rest will be revealed in the process of crossing. Everyone can create their own exclusive daylily - and you! Good luck