Gloxinia is a very popular houseplant. Homeland - Tropical America (Brazil, etc.). Varieties obtained as a result of sexual hybridization of royal gloxinia and beautiful gloxinia are common as indoor plants.
© Scott Zona
Gloxinia, Latin Gloxinia
This luxurious decorative flowering plant is quite difficult for a beginner grower, usually it is bought in stores already in the flowering stage. For indoor breeding, varieties obtained from two natural species are used: Gloxinia regina (Royal Gloxinia) and Gloxinia speciosa (Beautiful Gloxinia). The leaves of gloxinia are broadly oval, the royal gloxinia are pubescent, with a silver tint on the upper side and with a reddish one on the back. The stems are thickened. Bell-shaped flowers are located on long peduncles. Color options are huge. They can be drooping or upward, terry or not terry, with smooth or ruffled edges of the limb of the petals. Colors - red with a white edge, violet with a white edge, white, pink with purple dots, etc. With good care gloxinia bloom from spring to autumn. At rest, the entire terrestrial part of the plant dies.
© Eric Hunt
Temperature: Moderate during the period of growth and flowering, not lower than 16 ° C. Winter minimum when storing tubers 10 ° C.
Lighting: Gloxinia is photophilous, but it requires bright diffused light. When kept in direct summer sun on the leaves of gloxinia, yellow-brown spots may appear - sunburn.
Watering: Gloxinia is watered quite abundantly during growth and flowering, however, excessive dampness is detrimental to them. When watering, warm water is used, watering so that water does not fall on the flowers and leaves. From the end of August, flowering ends and watering is slightly reduced, and by the end of September they already water a little, since the plant begins to wither - the dormant period begins.
Fertilizers: Top dressing starts from about April to early August, weekly. Use special fertilizers for flowering indoor plants (containing a sufficiently large amount of potassium and phosphorus than nitrogen). It is possible to apply watering with organic fertilizers (for example, mullein infusion diluted with water, however, an excess of nitrogen can lead to the formation of powerful intense green leaves and small ugly flowers).
Air humidity: In the period of growth and flowering, synningia (a synonym for some types of gloxinia) needs very humid air, but does not tolerate water entering leaves and flowers. Therefore, the air is humidified by frequent spraying around the plant from a fine spray or a pot with the plant is placed on a tray with wet pebbles or expanded clay.
Transfer: For growing syningia use fairly wide pots, not large heights. Transplanted annually in the spring, but a larger pot is taken only when the old one becomes cramped. The soil should have a slightly acid reaction, pH = 5.5 - 6.5. Soil - a mixture of 2 parts of leafy land, 1 part of peat (or greenhouse land) and 1 part of river sand. You can also use purchased Violet mixtures, etc. Good drainage is required. When transplanting, the tuber is only half buried in the soil.
Reproduction: Seeds, leafy cuttings, division of the tuber.
© Forest & Kim Starr
Gloxinia prefer diffused light, without direct sunlight. The best place for placement is windows with a western or eastern orientation. Plants far from the window are placed on the windows with a southern orientation or scattered light is created by translucent fabric or paper (gauze, tulle, tracing paper). The content of plants in the period from February to the end of April in a sunny place is permissible. Plants are thermophilic, poorly tolerate drafts and temperature changes. Gloxinia respond positively to temperature uniformity between 20-22 ° C during the day and 18 ° C at night. During dormancy, pots with plants should be at a temperature of 10-14 ° C. During the growing season, plants are watered abundantly, with soft, settled water, as the top layer of the substrate dries. The temperature of irrigation water affects the growth and development of plants - in winter it should be warm (20-22C); do not spray plants with cold water. During dormancy, pots with nodules, if watered, are extremely rare. Gloxinia needs increased humidity during the growing season, but does not tolerate water on leaves and flowers. Therefore, the air is humidified by frequent spraying around the plant from a fine spray or a pot with the plant is placed on a tray with wet pebbles or expanded clay. In this case, the bottom of the pot should not touch the water. Adult specimens of gloxinia (from 3-4 years of age), with proper care, can bloom for a long time - from May to September, and abundantly, forming up to hundreds of flowers, sometimes 10-15 buds at the same time, during flowering. To extend the flowering period, faded pedicels are immediately cut.
Gloxinia has a pronounced period of rest. After flowering, watering is gradually limited.. After complete withering of the leaves, the tubers are left in pots, in the ground, and throughout the fall and until January they are kept in a cool place at a temperature not lower than 10 ° C, but not more than 14 ° C. From time to time you should inspect the tubers; in case of significant wrinkling, it should be watered with water (not more than once a month). At home, one of the signs of the start date for planting tubers is the germination of the kidney on the tubers, the appearance of its apex. In January-February, they are dug up, cleaned and planted again, in fresh soil in pots or in boxes. Tubers are planted several in 11-13-centimeter pots, deepening them so as to cover the kidneys 1 cm ground. The composition of the earth: leaf - 1 hour, peat - 1 hour, sand - 0.5 hours. After abundant watering, the pots are installed in a bright place where they are kept at a temperature of at least 20 ° C. If possible, the plants dovetail from the day of planting until the end of February — March, from 22 to 6-7 hours. Depending on the size of the tubers, they sprout from 1 to 4 shoots. In the rooms it is more advisable to leave the most developed one, sometimes two shoots. Top dressing starts from about April to early August, weekly. Use special fertilizers for flowering indoor plants (containing a sufficiently large amount of potassium and phosphorus than nitrogen). You can apply watering and organic fertilizers (for example, diluted mullein infusion with water, however, as already noted, an excess of nitrogen can lead to the formation of powerful intense green leaves and small ugly flowers).
© Forest & Kim Starr
Gloxinia is propagated by seeds and leafy cuttings. Tubers propagate sinning.
Seed propagation. Sowing dates - December – March. Seeds are very small (in 1 year, there are approximately 20 thousand pcs.). Full seedlings give not all seeds. The composition of the land for sowing: leaf - 1 hour, peat - 1 hour, sand - 1 hour. After wetting the substrate, the containers are covered with glass from above to create moisture, since the seeds are not covered with soil from above. The optimum temperature for seed germination is 24–26 ° C; at a uniform temperature, seedlings appear on the 12-14th day; at a temperature of 10-12 ° C, germination is delayed for more than 1 month, and sometimes it is not friendly. The main care of seedlings is uniform spraying with warm water, they are kept in a well-lit place. With the development of cotyledon leaves, approximately 18-25 days after their appearance, they begin the first pick. The composition of the earth is as follows: leaf - 2 hours, peat - 1 hour, sand - 1 hour. Dive at a distance of 2 × 2 cm, after this, containers with plants are installed as close to the light as possible.
After about 3-4 weeks, when the 3rd sheet appears, they begin the second pick, at a distance of 3 × 4 cm; the substrate is used the same as for the first pick. During transplantation, leaf damage (large and brittle) should be avoided whenever possible; damaged leaves must be removed. At this age, plants react especially positively to temperature - it should be at least 20 ° C; watering is uniform, drying is not allowed. Instead of a third pick, after a month, young plants are planted in 8–9-cm pots. The composition of the earth: leaf - 1 hour, humus - 1 hour, turf - 1 hour, peat - 1 hour, sand - 1 hour. After planting, pots with plants are set in a bright place. Plant care consists in abundant watering, creating high humidity, shading from the bright rays of the sun. In some cases, young plants are planted directly from the crates in 11-12-cm pots. Flowering occurs after 6 months from the day of sowing.
If it is necessary to have flowering plants in May, sowing can be done in November, and in this case, the seedlings and young plants should be additionally lightened. Additional illumination is carried out in November – February, for 8 hours a day with fluorescent lamps per 100 W per 1 m2.
The next sowing date is the beginning of October, after-growing begins in mid-December and continues until the end of February, daily, from 22 to 6 hours. This speeds up the beginning of flowering by 3 weeks.
When sowing in mid-December, they begin to re-grow from the day of sowing and stop it in mid-February. Germination begins 10 days later, but the plants grow intensively, however they are less developed than in the first two periods of sowing.
When propagated by leaves young plants can bloom in the same year. For this purpose, healthy leaves are cut from the uterine plants during their flowering period. Leaves are cut with a small piece of petiole, about 1 cm. Cuttings easily root in a substrate of pure sand - 4 hours, in a mixture with peat - 0.5 hours. The main care of the cuttings is to maintain high humidity and a temperature of 22-24 ° FROM. Cuttings root in 18–20 days; small nodules appear at the base of the plate. Rooted cuttings are planted in 5-7-centimeter pots.
Gloxinia can propagate by cuttings. Rooted cuttings (at a temperature of 20-25 ° C) are planted at the end of February in 9-centimeter pots. The composition of the land: leaf - 1 hour, peat - 1 hour, sphagnum and sand - 1 hour. Abundant watering is required. During the growth period, every 3 weeks, the plants are fed with liquid mineral complete fertilizer. After flowering, watering is reduced, then stopped and the plants in the pots are kept in a warm place until February.
Gloxinia perennial, or speckled (Gloxinia perennis (L.) Fritsch, (G. maculata H’Her.). It grows in forests from Colombia to Brazil and Peru. Perennial herbaceous plants 50-70 cm tall, with fleshy shoots, spots. Leaves are ovate, 10 cm long and 7 cm wide, pointed, glossy, green above, with sparse bristles, reddish below. Sinus flowers, collected in several; the corolla is bell-shaped, up to 3 cm in diameter, purple-bluish in the upper part, with a mint aroma. It blooms in September and November. Highly decorative plant, grown mainly in botanical gardens. It can be cultivated in warm rooms.
Gloxinia is beautiful (Gloxinia speciosa Lodd.). Synonym: Sinningia hybrid (Sinningia x hybrida hort.). It is found on the rocky, wet slopes of mountains in southern Brazil. Perennial herbaceous plants up to 20 cm tall, with a tuber (tuberous rhizome); shoots are absent or short. The leaves are oval, weakly heart-shaped at the base, densely hairy pubescent on both sides. The flowers are large, almost bell-shaped, 4-5 cm long, in the throat up to 5-6 cm wide, sawn. Blooms profusely in the summer. In culture, garden varieties bred as a result of crossing S. speciosa with its forms: var, albiflora, var. rubra, var. caulescens, as well as S. regina Sprague. Currently, all varietal diversity in ornamental horticulture is known under the name S. speciosa; they are often called tropical gloxinia. Varieties differ in flower size and color - from white to red, purple and two-tone.
Diseases and Pests
Brown spots on the leaves - the plant was watered with cold water, water for irrigation should be warm.
Leaves turn yellow - Overdose of fertilizers, too dry or too humid air, too much sun.
Gray plaque on leaves and flowers - gray rot or powdery mildew, arising, as a rule, in violation of the conditions of detention. Stop spraying, remove affected parts, treat with systemic fungicide.
The plant does not bloom - with insufficient lighting, lack of nutrition in the soil, dry or cold air, improper maintenance during the dormant period, an excess of nitrogen fertilizers. Gloxinia can be attacked by whiteflies, aphids, thrips, mealybug and other pests.
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