Grapes or clusters of pleasure
Grapes are the berry of life. The nutritional, dietary and medicinal properties of it are widely known. Grapes contain easily digestible sugars - glucose and fructose, organic acids - tartaric, malic, citric, oxalic, glucarboxylic, etc. In addition to organic products, the juice of berries contains up to 1.5% of minerals - potassium, sodium, phosphorus, iron, aluminum , iodine, bromine, boron and many macro- and micronutrients. Grapes are rich in vitamins A (carotene), B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), C (ascorbic acid). A harmonious combination of organic and mineral substances determines the pleasant taste and aroma of fresh berries and grape products - juices and wines, compotes and marinades.
Grapes, Latin - Vitis.
Genus of plants of the family Grape, as well as the fruits of such plants, which in mature form are sweet berries.
Grape shoots are called vine. The grape seed gives a small shoot in the first year after germination. Elongated, well-developed shoots grow from the buds in the sinus of its leaves the next year, and then, next year, each bud of this shoot gives more frail shoots, which freeze to the bottom of their buds by autumn, so that only one bottom shoot remains from such a shoot internode — shortened escape.
The flowers are small, collected in inflorescences. Fruits are spherical or ovoid berries, collected in more or less loose (rarely dense) clusters. The color of the berries varies greatly depending on the variety (yellow, greenish, dark blue, purple, black, etc.).
Features of growing grapes
The vine is sunlit and grows freely in areas sheltered from the wind and warm places. Some gardeners have successfully grown grape varieties with a short growing season in the Moscow region. Varieties with black fruits require more heat than varieties with light fruits. Therefore, in cooler areas, the latter are mainly grown, although there are several hardy varieties with black fruits.
Soil conditions and location of grapes
The vine is tolerant to different soils under two mandatory conditions: the soil layer with good drainage should be deep, and PH - 6.5-7.0. Carbonates are not suitable for her because of the danger of chlorosis. Choosing a place for planting grapes is extremely important, since it must be protected from the wind and completely open to the sun. In warmer areas, grapes grow well at high altitudes. The slope facing south or southwest is best suited for it. In colder areas, grapes can be grown against a wall or fence facing south. Do not plant the vine in places of stagnation of cold air.
Preparing the soil for planting grapes
If there is a risk of oversaturation of the soil with moisture, it is necessary to lay a drainage. 2-3 weeks before planting, prepare the soil with a two-tier digging. Remove high soil acidity by applying lime at the rate of 200 g per 1 m2. If the soil is poor, add rotted manure or compost (one wheelbarrow per 2 square meters of land) and complex mineral fertilizer. Grapes require a support system of horizontal wires. If the vine is grown against the wall, position the wire at a distance of 25-30 cm from one another. For vines in an open place, drive 60 cm into the ground with wooden posts 2 m long with an interval of 2.5-3.5 m. Strengthen the extreme posts with supports. One wire is stretched 40 cm above the ground, and above it every 30 cm two wires (so that they cross at each column). Insert a rail into the wire at each site for future planting.
You can plant the vine from October to March. However, these terms apply only to the southern regions where the soil does not freeze in winter. In other areas, the best planting time is spring (before buds open). Planting with shredded cuttings is carried out during bud budding at soil temperature at a root depth of at least 10–11 ° C. Leave a weak vine (not more than 0.5 mm in diameter) for the winter in a cold greenhouse and plant it in the ground when the threat of frost passes . Plant a vine near a wall or a solid fence at a distance of 1.2 m. One from the other and 40 cm from the wall, in an open place - at a distance of 1.2-1.5 m from one another in rows with a gap of 1.5-2 m. Check that the grafting site, if the vine is grafted, is above the soil level. Tie the vine to the support. Water and mulch with rotted manure or compost.
Fertilizing and watering vine vines
Add complex mineral fertilizer. In the spring, mulch with a layer of rotted compost 2.5-3.5 cm thick. The vine is sensitive to a lack of magnesium in the soil. Spray 250 g of magnesium sulfate diluted in 10 l of water. Repeat after two weeks. Throughout the growing season, once a week, feed table grape varieties with liquid mineral fertilizer until the berries ripen. A vine grown against a wall needs regular watering.
Even when the grapes are fully colored, they still remain immature, since they need time to accumulate sugars. This period ranges from 4-5 weeks for early varieties to 8-10 weeks for late varieties. Touching the berries destroys their wax coating, and therefore cut the bunches of grapes with secateurs with a twig.
When pruning the grapes, you should try as much as possible so that the shoots left for fruiting are:
- Without damage (hail, friction), without signs of disease (gray rot, shoot death), well ripened to the maximum length.
- The shoots should be of average thickness, with a diameter of 6-12 mm (this applies to adult bushes, in young bushes, of course, the vine is thinner). Too thin shoots with a small amount of wood contain less reserve substances. Too thick shoots for the most part have long internodes, a wide core and poorly developed fruit buds, are difficult to bend and break easily.
If possible, protect perennial shoots (sleeves, hoses, shoulders) from major injuries during pruning, as these wounds do not float in grapes.
If you want to achieve a high quality crop and long-term productivity of grape bushes, then leave no more than 8-12 eyes per 1 m2 of space occupied by an adult bush. Under normal conditions, there will be no errors when pruning fruitful shoots without counting the eyes so that there is room for them in the trellis. Those. for a cordon or for a fan formation (if you tie the shoots horizontally to the lower wire) - there is no overlap with arrows bearing fruit of other branches and adjacent bushes. When individual bushes fall out or underdeveloped, crop loss can be compensated by leaving more eyes in adjacent strong bushes, without any reduction in crop quality.
Pruning after frost damage (with non-covering culture)
If damaged by winter frosts, it is necessary to distinguish between eye damage and wood damage. In case of damage to the eyes, the scale of which is determined by opening them with a sharp knife (blade), you can achieve some compensation, leaving more eyes when trimming. However, leaving too many eyes is not recommended, as this greatly increases the volume of green operations due to the formation of shoots from numerous lateral and sleeping buds. If winter frosts destroyed the skeleton of the vine bush, including the sleeves (part of the stem), then you can still try to save the young plantings by pruning the aerial part of the bush. With the formation of usually vigorous spinning tops, the creation of a new skeleton of the bush is possible, as in young plantings.
Grape pruning technique
For pruning grapes you need to use a sharp and comfortable grape pruner, leaving a clean cut. Trimming older wood should be done at right angles (less wound area) and not too close to the base of the fruiting shoot or shoulder. Annual shoots are cut strictly above the lower eye (1-3 cm higher).
Diseases and Pests
For the correct diagnosis of the disease, it is necessary to study the complex of signs in the dynamics of their manifestation, because similar symptoms can be caused by a variety of diseases.
According to the duration of the disease, grapes are divided into chronic and seasonal.
The causative agents of chronic diseases (esca, excorioz, eutipiosis, bacteriosis, viruses) are inaccessible to the action of commonly used pesticides in the processing of vineyards by them and can be in a latent (latent) state for a long period. The infection spreads during the vegetative propagation of grapes with tools and processing tools, insect vectors, less often - pollen and seeds.
The occurrence of seasonal diseases (mildew, oidium, gray rot, anthracnose, rubella, white rot) is determined annually by the state of the wintering number of infections, which is largely related to the weather conditions of the previous growing season and can be predicted.
Mildew (downy mildew) - It develops during the growing season of grapes and affects all green parts of the bush (leaves, shoots, inflorescences, berries). Primary infection usually occurs with prolonged, heavy rain, wetting the soil and leaves (minimum air temperature at night is not lower than +13). When infected with mildew, oily spots of various shapes form on the leaves. When rain or dew occurs on the underside of the leaves, the spots are covered with mildew on a white coating of mycelium. Infection of new plants or organs of grapes occurs on the same night, in which a white coating forms on the mildew spots. The leaf tissue dries and crumbles at the spot, (necrotizing), and if the infection is severe, the leaves fall off. Inflorescences and green berries turn brown and dry or rot. Shoots are stunted and mature poorly. Crop losses reach 75% or more. With prolonged rains, fogs, dews, the disease develops rapidly.
The causative agent of the disease is a microscopic fungus. In autumn, wintering oospores develop on the leaves affected by mildew, having a thick shell that can tolerate significant frosts. They are well preserved during the winter both on the surface and under the soil layer. In spring, in moist soil, oospores sprout and form zoospores. The zoospore, moving in a drop of water, penetrates the stomata of the leaf and gives rise to the parasite mycelium. The mycelium inside the tissue is hidden (incubation period) and inaccessible to fungicides. The incubation period lasts 4-13 days, depending on the temperature, after which spots form on the affected leaves. Infection occurs only during rain, dew or fog, as mycelium sprouts only in a drop of water. In areas where high temperatures prevail in summer and frequent rains, dew or fogs occur, mildew develops strongly and produces great devastation.
- Control measures: Create conditions for airing the bushes. Preventive treatments with Bordeaux mixture or its substitutes (two before flowering). It can be processed with the following preparations: Amistar, Efal, Mikal, Delan, Strobi, Ditan-M45, Novozir, Pencozeb, Utan, Acrobat, Ridomil, Ridomil-Gold, Sandofan, Cuproxate, Carcocide, Copper oxychloride, Agiba-Peak, Oksikhom, Poliram Folpan, Avixil.
Oidium (powdery mildew) - It affects all the green parts of the bush, development on inflorescences and young ovaries is especially dangerous. The primary lesion appears even before flowering on the shoots formed from buds infected from last year. These shoots, together with the leaves, are covered with a white or gray powdery coating and serve as a source of further spread of the disease. On the leaves, the fungus develops on the upper side (with a very strong infection it can develop on both sides), while they turn brown and dry. Affected shoots develop poorly and freeze in winter.
In affected grape berries, the skin breaks under the pressure of growing pulp and seeds become visible. A characteristic sign of damage to the plant by oidium is the unpleasant smell of rotten fish. The disease leads to a significant decrease in yield, poor sugar accumulation, wine from diseased berries is of poor quality.
Strong development of oidium occurs in nature at a temperature of 19-24 degrees and with increased humidity without precipitation. The incubation period lasts 5-7 days. Crop losses can reach 70-80%.
- Control measures: Create conditions for airing the bushes. To destroy the primary infection of the oidium, the first treatments are carried out in places of foci with the formation of 2-3 leaves on the shoots. Then do the treatment before flowering and immediately after flowering. Next, they monitor the development of the disease and, if necessary, carry out more processing. Recommended preparations: Amistar, Efal, Mikal, Fundazol, Vectra, Rovral, Strobi, Kartotsid, Topaz, Cumulus, Colloidal sulfur, Tiovit-Jet, Atemi S, Falcon, Euparen multi, Privent, Saprol, Impact.
Everyone will be able to please their beloved grapes with your beauty and aroma if you follow the above tips for growing it!
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