Snapdragon, or antirrinum large
A charming snapdragon, whose inflorescences are invited to admire individual flowers and look for colorful associations with their shape, is one of the most beloved herbaceous soloists. Despite the fact that the antirrinum in nature has many perennial species, only incomparable annual snapdragons have become famous as a decorative plant. A rich color palette and a huge assortment of varieties of all sizes and shapes allows everyone to find stars for their garden. And even some capriciousness of this yearbook does not reduce its popularity.
Antirrinum - a wonderful garden summer with flowers of an unusual shape
Snapdragons - touching garden annuals, which can boast of beautiful details and considerable variety. As decorative plants, antirrinums have been grown for more than five hundred years, and their popularity is in no way inferior to its former glory. Moreover, every year, breeders tirelessly develop new improved varieties, the inflorescences of which are striking in size and massiveness.
Antirrinums, or snapdragons (Antirrhinum) in height reaches from 15 cm to 1 m. They can be grown as annuals or biennials. Straight, branched shoots form bushes similar to cones or pyramids, neat, dense and elegant. Shoots are most often green, sometimes with a purple coating. The lower opposite leaves are replaced by alternately located upper ones, the shape ranges from oval to lanceolate, but in general the foliage serves more as a background than a visible decoration.
The main pride of snapdragons is unusual flowers. Their original form, which gave the plant a favorite national name, captivates even experienced gardeners. Thanks to unusual flowers, reminiscent of really yawning muzzles and densely strewn with bushes, it is impossible to look away from the antirrinum. Blooming snapdragons seem lush and elegant, festive.
Two-lipped flowers, sometimes double. Collected in fairly dense brush inflorescences. The form, which, when you click on the flower from the side, “opens” like a mouth, is especially noticeable in large varieties and varieties and less pronounced in dwarf snapdragons.
The color palette of snapdragons includes a variety of shades of white, orange, yellow, raspberry, red. Moreover, the colors themselves are varied and varied, sometimes bright and catchy, sometimes delicate, then watercolor, then monotonous or motley ... Each flower blooms for 12 days, and the whole plant blooms for at least three months. The flowering period of snapdragon covers the whole summer and lasts until the very frost. Snapdragon, in addition, is a very aromatic plant that exudes a sugary trail of sweet-honey smell.
Species and varietal diversity of snapdragon
In the genus antirrinum - more than fifty different plant species. But in decorative gardening they use only one - Snapdragon, or large antirrinum (antirrhinum majus) Azarina (Asarina), formerly classified as an antirrinum, is today singled out as an independent genus of liane plants.
Despite the fact that snapdragon is a separate type of antirrinum, it is divided into several groups, or species in growth. Yes, and the quantity, assortment of varieties allows you to choose a plant to each according to your taste. There is a perfect snapdragon for any ensemble, even with the most unusual concept and design style.
Among the snapdragons are distinguished:
Tall Antirrinums - spectacular and large accents, grassy annuals with a height of 65 to 110 cm. Their bushes branch weakly, compact and dense, the shoots are as if arranged in rank. These antirrinums are characterized by the most spectacular large and dense inflorescences, which are best suited for cutting. The best varieties include:
- sortgroup ‘Rocket ’ with rhododendron-like terry flowers;
- grade ‘Rocket Lemon ’, with light green, delicate color of inflorescences, giving inflorescences an extraordinary attractiveness in bouquets;
- meter grade ‘Rocket Orchid ’ with a rare lavender color of flowers, which distinguishes bushes from the ordinary and elevates the elegance of the structure of inflorescences to a new level;
- grade ‘Rocket Golden ’ with golden green inflorescences on peduncles up to 1 m high;
- grade ‘Rocket Bronze ’ with pink-salmon color, which gives orange and yellow overflows with special effect;
- sortgroup ‘Madam Butterfly ’ with elegant colorful plants and a colorful palette;
- unusual two-tone variety with a yellow border on pale pink petals ‘Tip Top Irma ’;
- variety series ‘Tip To ’ with variegated colors, a decorative border on flowers and a height of about 80 cm (good for decorative compositions, and for cutting);
- resistant grade ‘Alaska ’ with a very weakly branching, slightly dull bush, but luxurious inflorescences up to 25 cm long and a radiant snow-white color;
- the Vulcan cultivar forming narrow bushes about 70 cm high with bright leaves and a yellow-beige tone of inflorescences, very fragrant, but not too dense;
- narrow pyramidal, early variety ‘Brilliantrosa ’ up to 80 cm high with half the diameter, very large and spectacular leaves and bright pink, fragrant inflorescences, effectively blooming bushes;
- also narrow, elegant variety ‘Velvet Giant ’ with reddish leaves, dark purple, casting a blackish red flowers in medium-dense, but surprisingly spectacular inflorescences;
- grade ‘Cherry Improved ’ with a rich, cherry-pink color of catchy lush inflorescences;
- grade ‘The Rose ’ with silk, pink flowers of a classical form that breathe romance and classic beauty.
Medium, or semi-high antirrinums - compact, plentiful-colored and more sparse varieties with a height of 20 to 60 cm. Bushes in medium-sized antirrinums branch much stronger than high varieties, more lush. But they also have less inflorescences, which compensates for the possibility of choosing varieties with different flowering periods - from early to very late. The best varieties include:
- legendary variety ‘Black Prince ’, with dark greenery and seeming black shoots, luxurious dark burgundy color of exquisite flowers; half meter, noble and unusually spectacular;
- early flowering varieties ‘Coronette ’better suited for containerized culture; all antirrinums of the series are very resistant to rust and diseases, there are varieties with a variety of colors from white, yellow, copper and pink to purple (for example, multi-colored varietal mixture ‘Coronette Formula Mix ’);
- ‘Wildrose’ - a beautiful variety with bushes 40 cm tall and inflorescences up to 20 cm with a loose structure that gives large flowers with rich, medium pink color special expressiveness;
- grade ‘Golden Monarch ’, unusually sprawling, half-meter, wide, with large leaves and no less large flowers of lemon color, one of the best late varieties;
- compact half meter early grade ‘Defiance ’ with slender bushes, wide, pink leaves and narrow, unusually rare inflorescences with differently colored yellow, orange and purple flowers;
- early grade ‘Libesglut ’ with dense, rather narrow bushes and a dark color of foliage, perfectly emphasizing the beauty of massive cherry blossoms;
- medium grade ‘Red Chif ’ with massive, lush greenery, which seems dense and dense, but with medium-density inflorescences, albeit a very beautiful carmine color of dark, large flowers.
Undersized snapdragons - antirrinums with a height of not more than 30-40 cm. The bushes consist of a strikingly large number of shoots, razlogi, semicircular. Inflorescences in varieties are smaller and looser than in medium and large, and among low antirrinums only varieties with medium and early flowering are found. The best varieties include:
- ‘Crimson Velvet’ about 30 cm high with dense large foliage and fairly large dark red inflorescences;
- grade ‘Schneeflocke ’ about 25 cm high, characterized by a spherical shape, elongated leaves and small white flowers in openwork inflorescences;
- sortoseriya ‘Crown ’ with an average height of bushes of 30-35 cm, ideal for the foreground of flower beds and containers, with a shortened growing season.
Dwarf snapdragons limited to 15-20 cm in height. Bushes branch strongly, as if sprawling. Inflorescences are small-flowered and short, only up to 10 cm in length. The best varieties of miniature antirrinums are:
- legendary variety with a height of about 20 cm with a spherical shape of a bush ‘Tom-Tumb ’ with very thin shoots, large leaves and short, but amazingly dense inflorescences of bright lemon color with a dark spot on the lip of each flower;
- sortgroup ‘Floral ’ with unusually compact, dense bushes and a large palette of original plain and variegated colors, bred specifically for pottery culture;
- sortgroup "Hobbit", In which the flowers are wide open, the bushes seem delicate and elegant, and the colors range from white and yellow to orange, pink and dark red.
Today, ampel varieties are considered as new subspecies of snapdragon. They show off drooping, meter-long shoots that look great in hanging baskets and balcony drawers. On sale you can find both the basic variety “Lampion” and its individual forms with improved endurance or new colors.
Snapdragon in the design of the garden use:
- for flower beds and summer leaves;
- in the design of lush ensembles;
- for decorating rabatok, flower beds and groups of ornamental plants with long-blooming accents;
- as a temporary edge under the bushes;
- in texture mixborders;
- as a container and pot plant for decorating a terrace, recreation areas, balconies;
- in flowerpots on socles and stone flower girls;
- as a cutting crop (including for distillation).
Inflorescences of the snapdragon retain a unique ability not to lose freshness for up to 2 weeks in bouquets, while all the buds of the antirrinum gradually open and not one withers closed. But it is better to choose only inflorescences for cutting, in which the first flowers bloomed, and most remain closed in buds.
The best partners for anti-rime: marine lobularia, cosmea, sage, mint
Conditions required for snapdragon
In its plasticity and ability to grow equally effectively under different conditions, snapdragon is rightfully included in the ranks of the best flyers. This handsome man does not like drafts, let alone windy areas. But if you provide him with a comfortable, warm, protected place, then snapdragon will please both on sunny and shaded areas. He cannot stand a strong shadow, but any partial shade will suit him in the same way as open places. If you grow plants for cutting, it is better to pick up solar locations.
Undemanding to the soil is another trump card of snapdragons. He does not like only waterlogging, dampness, which will be fatal for the plant. And he will be able to settle on any medium-moist or dry soils. It reaches a special decorative effect on loam and sandstone. The higher the nutrient content of the soil, the better. For depleted and normal soil, it is better to add fertilizer to the soil during pre-planting improvement. Antirrinums on loam, nutritious, medium-moist and high-quality, bloom best.
Planting snapdragon seedlings in the soil
Before planting snapdragons in the ground, it needs to be improved. The plant reacts especially well to a mixture of complete mineral fertilizers and organics - compost, humus, wood ash. Organic fertilizers are applied at the rate of 3-4 kg per square meter, mineral mixtures - in standard doses recommended by the manufacturer. Digging the soil should include working to a depth of at least 40 cm.
The snapdragons are planted in a permanent place in the garden or in pots and containers for the garden and balconies only after the soil has completely warmed up and the threat of serious night frost has disappeared. The traditional landing date is the second half of May. If pinching was not done before landing, then when carrying it is better to pinch the top.
The optimal landing distance for snapdragon is from 15 cm to half a meter, for small varieties a tight fit is used, for large varieties they leave a lot of space.
Caring for snapdragons
Watering snapdragon is vital. This yearbook is not afraid of only short-term droughts. The snapdragons are watered as the soil dries, as soon as the weather is lacking in moisture. But during irrigation it is extremely important to prevent waterlogging of the soil, its dampness. For snapdragons, it is better to provide several lungs than one too abundant watering.
Another feature of the plant is a preference for morning watering. It is better not to water the snapdragon at night, because the combination of low temperatures and high humidity can lead to decay of the base of the shoots. Water the plant only in the morning, when the temperature begins to rise.
The cultivation and weeding is necessary for the plant only after very heavy rainfall, watering and at an early age. In general, the care of antirrinum is quite common in this parameter.
Fertilizing for antirrinum is carried out only before flowering, but it is better if fertilizers manage to be applied not even 2, but 3 times at equal intervals. It is best to use full mineral fertilizers: so the bushes will not only be beautifully flowering, but also quite lush, attractive, the greens will not suffer.
Snapdragon is beautiful, but only if he is provided with assistance in removing fading flowers. The plant itself does not drop dry petals, and they not only reduce the abundance of flowering, spoil the decorativeness of inflorescences, but also increase the risk of spread of fungal diseases. It is better not to wait for the flowers to dry completely, but to pick them off immediately after the beginning of wilting.
Preservation of flowering antirrinums for the winter
Continuing to bloom snapdragons does not necessarily throw or condemn to death with the advent of frost. In the fall, before the onset of negative temperatures, they can simply be transferred to the pots, trying to minimize root injury and translate into room conditions. There snapdragon will remain attractive for a long time and delight you with its flowering.
In the open soil, only antirrinums that grow in regions with mild climates can winter (hardened plants can withstand frosts down to -5)
Fighting pests and diseases of the snapdragon
One of the biggest shortcomings of snapdragon is rightfully considered extreme exposure to pests and diseases. He even in ideal conditions can present an unexpected unpleasant surprise. Caterpillars, butterflies, fly larvae and a black leg represent the greatest danger to the antirrinum, almost all fungal diseases of ornamental plants from late blight to rust.
It is almost impossible to deal with problems; it is better to destroy plants immediately. But to prevent problems is much easier: an ungrounded planting, normal care and the right choice of soil that does not allow moisture to stagnate, guarantee success.
Methods of propagation of snapdragon
Growing snapdragons from seeds
Sowing directly into the open soil in the winter gives bushes blooming only in August, therefore, for the snapdragon, the seedling method is preferred.
Sowing for snapdragons is carried out early, in the first decade of March.Sowing snapdragons is better in large containers or boxes, shallow, in a nutrient substrate. Germination can be achieved both under glass and without it, but seeds that are covered with a film or glass sprout faster. On average, seedlings appear after 10 days. Young plants grow for 2-3 weeks, after which they dive into separate containers.
After a dive, it is better not to irrigate for a week, limiting it to spraying only. They grow seedlings of snapdragon under normal conditions, pinching the top for thickening and with moderate watering. Top dressing is applied a week after a dive and again 10 days after the first, using only full mineral fertilizers. Before taking out the seedlings to the garden, seedlings must be hardened for at least 1 week. Antirrinum is planted in the soil no earlier than the second decade of May.
Self-collection of seeds requires vigilance. Seeds do not ripen at the same time: just like when blossoming flowers, the change first ripens in the lower seed boxes, and then a wave passes through the inflorescences. At the top of the inflorescences, it’s difficult to collect high-quality seeds, so you can simply throw them away using only seeds from two lower thirds of the plant.
The collection must be carried out carefully, immediately after yellowing the boxes, so as not to spill precious small seeds. After self-collection, snapdragon seeds can be used for 3-4 years.
Cuttings of snapdragons
This method is used very rarely, plants require the preservation of uterine bushes for the winter indoors, and a new generation of snapdragons blooms much later and more sparingly. Cuttings root very easily, in plain sand or even water. Cuttings are considered the preferred method of propagation only for terry antirrinums, and even then not all varieties.